Kajian


22 April 2008

Economic Impacts of Sanitation in Southeast Asia: A four-country study conducted in Cambodia, Indonesia, The Philippines and Vietnam under the Economics of Sanitation Initiatives (ESI)

This study examines the major health, water, environmental, tourism and other welfare impacts associated with poor sanitation in Cambodia, Indonesia, The Philippines and Vietnam. The study is based on evidence from other investigations, surveys and databases. The impact measurement reported in the study focuses mainly on a narrow definition of sanitation – human excreta management and related hygiene practices. The measurement of water resource impact also includes grey water, and the measurement of environmental impact includes solid waste management. By examining the economic impacts of poor sanitation, and the potential gains from improved sanitation, this study provides important evidence to support further investment in sanitation. The goal of this report is to show decision-makers at the country and regional levels how the negative impacts of poor sanitation can be mitigated by investing in improved sanitation. Table of Contents: Executive Summary Foreword Abbreviations and Acronyms Acknowledgement Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Study Methodology Overview 3. Economic Impact Results 4. Discussion, Recommendations and Conclusions Annexes Annex A: Study Methods Annex B: Algorithms Annex C: Study Results Annex D: References


Ari Widyanti Purwantiasning, John Christian Stonard, & Mark Terrence J. Thorne | 21 April 2008

Konservasi dan Perkembangan Ekonomi: Studi Kasus Kota Liverpool dan Kota Chester-Inggris

Proyek pelestarian kota-kota tua dan bersejarah telah dimulai sejak awal 1966 yang bertujuan untuk mempelajari, menemukan serta menganalisa masalah-masalah yang timbul saat ini, berkaitan dengan perkembangan masa mendatang, kemudian mengaitkannya dengan konservasi jangka panjang serta perbaikan karakter serta lingkungan dari kota-kota tua dan bersejarah di Inggris. Pada dasarnya masalah-masalah tersebut terlihat di semua kota di Inggris baik kota bersejarah maupun bukan, tetapi dapat dirasakan bahwa masalah yang paling inti dimana akan menjadi hal signifikan adalah nilai-nilai sejarah yang harus tetap menjadi fokus utama. Tulisan ini merupakan laporan penelitian yang dijabarkan dari hasil presentasi konferensi pada tanggal 18 Desember 1998. Penelitian mendiskusikan mengenai perkembangan ekonomi dan komersial sebagai dampak dari adanya konsep konservasi. Hal ini dimaksudkan untuk mengukur seberapa jauh isu-isu dari kualitas konsep konservasi di dalam suatu daerah atau area konservasi. Pada tulisan ini akan dipaparkan dua buah studi kasus yang menjadi fokus dalam penelitian yaitu Kota Chester dan Kota Liverpool dimana keduanya mempunyai karakter yang berbeda yang tentunya berdampak pada kualitas penampilan yang berbeda pula. Daftar isi: Daftar Isi Pengantar Kesatu: Pendahuluan Kedua: Acuan Teori Ketiga: Studi Kasus Chester Keempat: Studi Kasus Liverpool Kelima: Kesimpulan Appendiks Daftar Pustaka Tentang Penulis


Brian Roberts and Trevor Kanaley (Ed) | 10 Maret 2008

Urbanization and Sustainability in Asia: Case Studies of Good Practices

The book presents case studies of good practice on sustainable urban development from 12 Asian countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. It provides insights into current issues, management approach, and investment types in urban development in Asian setting. It also provides other examples of good practice in sustainable urban development in the context of more advanced economies. It is a useful reference for city managers, political leaders, and professionals responsible for planning and managing the development of cities.

Daftar isi:

Overview
Urbanization and Sustainability in Asia
Bangladesh
Cambodia
People's Republic of China
India
Indonesia
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Malaysia
Pakistan
Philippines
Sri Lanka
Thailand
Viet nam
Global Good Practices
Lessons and Strategies for Sustainable Urban Futures

 


David Satterthwaite with Gordon McGranahan and Diana Mitlin | 26 Februari 2008

Community-driven Development for Water and Sanitation in Urban Areas: Its contribution to meeting the Millenium Development Goal targets

CONTENTS:

Summary
I. Introduction
II. The Scale of nedd in urban areas
III. Focusing action where needs are greatest
IV. Community-driven improvements in proven
V. Alternative means to support improvements in provision for water and sanitation
VI. Financing water and sanitation improvements through loans and subsidies
VII. Engaging with small-scale private water and sanitation providers
VIII. Reform within existing public and private utilities; examples from Bangalore and Buenos Aires
IX. Going to scale
X. The tools and methods that support community-driven improvements for water and sanitation
XI. Changing the donor-community interface
XII. Conclusions
Figures
Boxes
Annexes

 


25 Februari 2008

Economic Impacts of Sanitation in The Philippines Summary: A five-country study conducted in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, The Philippines and Vietnam under the Economics of Sanitation Initiatives (ESI)

About 20 million Filipinos, or more than a quarter of the Philippine population,

were exposed to poor sanitation in 2004. Moreover, with an average population

growth of more than 2% per annum, an additional 2 million people will require

adequate and clean sanitation facilities each year. These facts raise serious

concerns because poor sanitation has a wide variety of negative impacts.

 

Sanitation is often a neglected aspect of development in developing

countries. This in part explains the lack of reliable data and research to

verify the significant burden imposed by poor sanitation on society. This

study attempts to address these shortcomings by conducting a quantitative

and qualitative assessment of the impacts of poor sanitation on health,

water, other welfare indicators, and tourism.

 

The analysis interpreted sanitation as activities that are related to human

excreta. However, there were instances in which sanitation as it relates

to gray water and solid waste were also included. The study relied on

evidence from secondary sources and was hence limited in the scope

of impacts examined.

 

Overall, the study estimates that poor sanitation leads to economic costs in the

order of US$1.4 billion or PhP 77.8 billion per year. This is equivalent to about

1.5% of GDP in 2005 and translates into per capita losses of US$16.8 or PhP

923.7 per year.

 

The health impacts represent the largest source of quantified economic costs.

Estimated to be about US$1 billion, this item explains about 71% of the total.

Poor sanitation also contributes to the pollution of water resources. The study

found that this aspect accounted for about 23% of the total economic costs or

US$323 million. Other welfare impacts and the impacts of poor sanitation on

tourism were also estimated to exceed US$77 million per year.

6 5

Having estimated the impacts, the study also evaluated the benefits

associated with improved sanitation and hygiene practices. The results

showed that improved hygiene practices•'3fe.g., hand washing•'3fcan

reduce health costs by approximately US$455 million. Improved

physical access to sanitary toilets can reduce economic costs associated

with user preferences by about US$38 million, whereas improved

toilet systems can reduce health costs by US$324 million. Improvement

in the treatment or disposal of waste has a large impact on water

resources and can reduce costs by US$364 million.

 

The findings of this study indicate that poor sanitation has significant

economic costs. It also showed that improvements in the sanitation

sector will not only result in economic savings but will also lead to

gains that go beyond the simple mitigation of the costs, such as the

value of human excreta used for fertilizer.

 

This is the first regional study to compile economic evidence on a

range of impacts of poor sanitation. The results are a wake-up call to

the Philippine government and the development community. Poor

sanitation affects everyone, especially the poor and vulnerable (children,

women, disabled, and senior people). The considerable importance

of sanitation shown in this study and the key links improved sanitation

has with other development goals (poverty and hunger reduction,

gender equality, child health, access to safe drinking water, and quality

of life of slum dwellers) demonstrate that it should receive far greater

attention from players whose interest is the equitable socioeconomic

development of the Philippines. Decisionmakers should act now and

in a concerted way to increase access to improved sanitation and

hygiene practices.

Daftar Isi:

Acknowledgments

Executive Summary

1.       Introduction

2.       Methods

2.1    Study Approach

2.2    Scope of  ’Sanitation’

2.3    Impacts Evaluated

2.4    Impact Mitigation

3.       Results

3.1    Summary of Economic Impacts of Poor Sanitation

3.2    Health Impacts

3.3    Water Resource Impacts

3.4    Other Welfare Impacts

3.5    Tourism Impact

3.6    Economic Gains from Improved Sanitation and Hygiene

3.7    Omitted Impacts

4.       Recommendations

Annex

Abbreviations

Tables

Figures

 


14 Februari 2008

Kajian Pendanaan Public untuk Air Minum dan Sanitasi di Indonesia/ Review of Public Financing for Water Supply and Sanitation in Indonesia (Financial Study)

Studi ini meneliti pendanaan publik dalam pengoperasian dan investasi pada sektor AMPL pasca-desentralisasi, yaitu 2003-2005. Kajian ini menganalisis alokasi dana yang dilakukan oleh Departemen Kesehatan dan Departemen Pekerjaan Umum pada tingkat pusat, dan pada tujuh propinsi, dua kota dan 19 kabupaten yang berpartisipasi pada proyek Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Action Planning (WASPOLA).

Studi ini memberikan gambaran besaran dan kualitas investasi yang telah dilakukan pada sektor AMPL di era desentralisasi sebagai sarana memahami permasalahan-permasalahan mendasar terkait dengan kesenjangan dalam pendanaan sektor. Laporan studi ini dipaparkan dalam bahasa Inggris.

Daftar isi:

Abbreviation and Acronyms
Information and Acknowledgment
Table of Contents
Report Summary In Indonesia
1.Introduction
1.1Objective of the Study
1.2Study Scope, Method and Limitations
2.Sector Background
2.1 Position at Decentralization
2.2 Position Post-Decentralization
3.Institutional Context
3.1 National Level
3.2 Local Level
4.National Water Supply and Sanitation Strategies
5.Financial Policies
5.1 Public Financing for Water Supply and Sanitation
5.2 Public Financial Planning and Budgeting Policies
6.Budget Trends for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES) 2003-2005
6.1Local Investment in Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation
6.2National Investment in Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation
6.3National and Local Government Support to PDAMs
7.Conclusions
8.Next Steps on Finance Strategy
Annexes
Annex 1
Annex 2
Annex 3
Appendices


17 Januari 2008

Good Practices Kegiatan Lingkungan Berbasis Masyarakat di Indonesia (Draft)

Pustaka ini memperkenalkan 21 good practices dalam kegiatan lingkungan berbasis masyarakat di Indonesia. Pustaka ini disusun sebagai sarana untuk berbagi pengetahuan dan pengalaman dalam kegiatan lingkungan berbasis masyarakat, untuk para pakar yang terlibat dalam pendidikan lingkungan dari lembaga-lembaga terkait, termasuk instansi pemerintah pusat dan daerah, LSM, perusahaan swasta dan lembaga donor, agar nantinya kegiatan lingkungan menjadi semakin baik.

Kegiatan lingkungan yang disebutkan dalam pustaka ini meliputi konservasi hutan, konservasi air dan tanah, konservasi ekosistem, dan pengelolaan sampah dengan 3R.

Daftar isi:

I. Pengelolaan Sampah dengan 3R
1. Pengelolaan Sampah Terpadu di Banjarsari, Cilandak, Jakarta Selatan
2. Pengelolaan Sampah Terpadu di Perumahan Mustika Tigaraksa, Tangerang
3. Desentralisasi Pengelolaan Sampah di Bukit Kencana Jaya, Semarang
4. Pengelolaan Sampah Terpadu di Surabaya (Menggunakan Metode Home Methode Takakura)
5. Pengelolaan Kompos di Kebun Karinda, Lebak Bulus, Jakarta Selatan
6. Pengelolaan Sampah Terpadu di Pondok Pekayon Indah, Bekasi Selatan
7. Pengelolaan Sampah Terpadu di Kampung Sukunan, Sleman, Yogyakarta
8. Mengubah Sampah menjadi Peluang Bisnis
9. Manajemen Kompos “Mutu Elok” di Perumahan Cipinang Elok Settlement, Jakarta Timur
10. Pengelolaan Kompos Cair di Cempaka Baru, Jakarta Pusat
11. Pengelolaan Sampah Terpadu di Kampung Rawajati, Pancoran
12. Pengelolaan Kompos di Kampung Cibangkong, Bandung, Jawa Barat
13. Pengelolaan Sampah Terpadu di Kampung Rawasari, Cempaka Baru, Jakarta Pusat
14. Program Daur Ulang Kemasan Kertas Tetra Pak
15. Pengelolaan Sampah Terpadu di SMA 34, Lebak Bulus, Jakarta

II. Forest Conservation
1. Pemberdayaan Masyarakat di Suaka Margasatwa di Gunung Simpang, Cianjur melalui Pemberlakuan Peraturan Desa dan Pembentukan Kelompok Penjaga Hutan bernama “Raksabumi”
2. Gerakan Desa Lingkungan, Perluasan Wilayah Kelola Rakyat (Sistem Hutan Kerakyatan)

III. Ecosystem Conservation
1. Klub Konservasi Sekolah (KKS)
2. Program Pelatihan Ekosistem untuk Siswa SMUN 69

IV. Water and Soil Conservation
1. Pendidikan Ekologi, Pendidikan Lingkungan Berbasis Alam untuk Siswa SD dan SMP di sepanjang Sungai Citarum
2. Pendidikan Lingkungan Terkait dengan Air dan Tanah
 


Andy Robinson | 02 Januari 2008

Universal Sanitation in East Asia: Mission Possible?

Daftar isi:

Summary
800 Million People in East Asia lack Adequate Sanitation
Dirty Realities
Sanitation is Vital for Human Health
Sanitation is Good for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction
Sanitation Contributes to Social Development
Sanitation Helps the Environment
Sanitation Affects Children's Development and Our Future
Hygiene-don't Forget to wash Your Hands with Soap!
The Scale of the Sanitation Challenge
Progress Report: Updated Sanitation Coverage Estimates
Progress Report: National Sanitation Achievements
Three-quarters of those without Sanitation live in Rural Areas
Are the Poor being left behind
Financing Sanitation
What should be done in East Asia
Striving for Universal Sanitation
References
Annex 1: Sanitation Coverage Estimates
Annex 2: Diarrheal Disease Data


02 Januari 2008

Economic Impacts of Sanitation in Southeast Asia Summary: A four-country study conducted in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam under the Economics of Sanitation Initiatives (ESI)

The Sanitation Impact Study was conducted in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam. A study is ongoing in Lao PDR. The study was led by the East Asia and Pacific office of the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), with the contribution of WSP teams in each of the participating countries. The study took one year to complete, and has undergone two major peer review processes. This summary report is based on four fulllength country reports and a full-length synthesis report.

 

 

 

This study examines the major health, water, environmental, tourism and other welfare impacts associated with poor sanitation in

 

 

Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam. By examining the economic impacts of poor sanitation, and the potential gains from improved sanitation, this study provides important evidence to support further investments in sanitation. The goal of this report is to show decisionmakers at the country and regional levels how the negative impacts

of poor sanitation can be mitigated by investing in improved sanitation.

 

 

 

The study is based on evidence from other investigations, surveys and databases. The impact measurement reported in the study focuses mainly on a narrow definition of sanitation - human excreta management and related hygiene practices. The measurement of water resource impact included release of gray water to water bodies, and the measurement of environmental impact included poor solid waste management.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cambodia,

 

 

Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines lose an estimated US$9 billion a year because of poor sanitation (based on 2005 prices). That is approximately 2% of their combined Gross Domestic Product (GDP), varying from 1.3% in the Philippines and Vietnam, to 2.3% in Indonesia and 7.2% in Cambodia. The annual economic impact is approximately US$6.3 billion in Indonesia, US$1.4 billion in the Philippines, US$780 million in Vietnam and US$450 million in Cambodia. With the universal implementation of improved sanitation and hygiene, it is assumed that all the attributed impacts are mitigated, except health, for which 45% of the losses are mitigated. Universal sanitation would lead to an annual gain of US$6.3 billion in the four countries, as shown in the figure below. The implementation of

ecological sanitation approaches (fertilizer and biogas) would be worth an estimated US$270 million annually.

Daftar Isi:

Acknowledgments
Executive Summary
1. Introduction
2. Methods
2.1 Study Approach
2.2 Scope of ’Sanitation’
2.3 Impacts Evaluated
2.4 Impact Mitigation
3. Results
3.1 Health Impacts
3.2 Water Impacts
3.3 Environmental Impacts
3.4 Other Welfare Impacts
3.5 Tourism Impact
3.6 Overall Economic Impacts
4. Recommendations
Annex
Abbreviations
Tables
Figures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Shyamal Sarkar, Soma Ghosh Moulik, Somnath Sen | 17 Desember 2007

The Mumbai Slum Sanitation Program: Partnering with Slum Communities for Sustainable Sanitation in a Megalopolis

Daftar isi:

Preface
Background
Environmental Services in Mumbai Slums
Introducing a New Approach: The Slum Sanitation Program
Achievements of the Slum Sanitation Program
What Do We Learn from Mumbai
Appendix:
Slum Studied
Select References